Faallo: Wershada Sibidhka ee Berbera (Berbera Cement Factory) By Eng. Mohamud Qoorubaxay

Waxaan salaam qiimo iyo qaayo badan u dirayaa dhammaanba shacabka reer SL ee akhriyey maqaalkaygii ku saabsanaa cinwaanka sare. Waxaan mid gaar ah u dirayaa dhalinyaro badan oo xiisanaysay maqaalkaas oo ila soo xidhiidhay ina waydiistay inaan warar mugleh uga soo diro sida sibdihka loo sameeyo iyo qalabka lagu sameeyoba.

Waxaan salaam aad iyo aad u mugweyn u dirayaa dhalinyarada hagta website-yada soo qoray maqaalkaygii.  Waxaanan ka codsanayaa inay qoraan maqaalada ummadda wax u faa’iidaynaya if iyo akhiroba. http://www.caynabanews.com/view.php?id=13683

Waxaa jiray niman badan oo hadalo turxaan leh ii soo diray oo igu lamaanaayey qabiil aanan kaba hadal iguna sheegay mid aanan waxba aqoon.  Mowduucu wuxuu ahaa sida sibidhka loo sameeyo iyo meelaha SL laga samayn karo oo keliya.
Sidaan kor ku sheegay dhalinyaro badan oo dhedig iyo laboodba leh oo jooga caalamka ayaa iga codsaday warar dheeraada. Waxaana la igala soo xidhiidhay meelo  badan sida SL, USA, UK, South Africa, Kuwait, Qatar iyo meelo kale oo badan.  Sidaas darteed bacdamay iga soo codsadeen dhalinyaro badani, waxaan doonayaa inaanan idinkaga bakhaylin ee aan la wadaago aqoonta yare een u leeyahay sida sibidhka loo sameeyo.
Sidaad ka akhrideen website yada maqaalkayii hore waxaan kaga hadlay noocyada sibidhka iyo mid waliba wuxuu ka kooban yahay. Haddaba waxaan dhawr maqaal oo taxane ah idiinku soo gurbin doonaa nooca keliya ee hadda SL laga samayn karo iyo sida loo sameeyo. Waxaanna idin la wadaagii doona talaabooyinka la qaado oo dhan (the cement production processes) marka sibidhka noocan ah la samaynayo.
Sibidhka waxaa laga sameeya dhagax iyo ciid(dhoobo) iyo waxyaabo kale oo lagu hagaajiyo ama lagu milxiyo sida raashinka loo milxiyo si sibidhka quality fiican lehi usoo baxo.
Haddaba intaynaan dhex gelin sibidh samaynta aynu wax ka ogaano dhaqaxa qudhiisa. Aynuna ka jawaabno dhowr su’aalood oo dhagaxa ku saabsan.

  1. Imisa nooc oo dhagxaan ah baa jirta?
  2. Maxay kala yihiin ama u qaybsamaan


  1. Waxaan jira saddex nooc  (three basic groups ama saddex qabiilo oo dhagxaan ah) oo dhagax caadi ah caalamka oo dhan (kama hadlayo macdane ogow). Macdantu maaha dhagax (Mineral can be organic like Coal, or inorganic). Hadase kama hadli doono macdanta. haddii kale  buuraha ayaa lagu dareeri doonnaa (lol). Wararka ku saabsan macdanta, meelaha petrolka  ama   Natural Gas-ka  laga helo  mar kale  ayeynu faalayn doonnaa Insha Allah.


Saddexda nooc ee dhagaxaantu waa kala qabiilo ama kala group waxay wadaagaan in dhulka laga wada helo (found them in or on the earth)iyo  weliba in markay process dheer maraan millions ofyears ay is bedelaan.


Waxaanna lagu gartaa astaamaha ay ku kala duwan yihiin oo ay xukunto siday u samaysmeen.


Waana saddex qabiil ee soo socda;


  1. Igneous Rocks .
  2. Sedimentary Rocks .
  3. Metamorphic Rocks .

Bal aynu abla ablayno sida mid waliba u samaysmo. Waxaase ogataa inaan aqoonta dhagaxa maqaalo kooban oo sidan oo kale ah lagu dhammayn Karin ee jaamacado loo galo.

  1. Igneous Rocks (Fire rocks); waa dhagax madow oo aad u gubtay waxaa uu ka soo baxaa dhulka guntiisa (the core of the earth) isagoo dareere ah oo macaadino badan oo la gubtayna la socdaan (Magma and minerals). Cadaadiska dhulka hoostiise darteed buu isagoo nafla caari ah u soo cararayaa dhulka horkiisa, halkaas markuu dhulka horkiisa u soo dhowaado ee xaraaradiisu ama temperature kiisu dego uu bilaabo inuu qaboobo. Qaar ka mid ah ayaa markaas dhulka korkiisa soo gaadha (volcano) , qaarna dhulka hoostiisa oo aan sidaas u dheerayn buu ku qaboobaa oo dhagax ku noqdaa.

Igneous rocks wuxuu ka kooban labo lafood ama labo habar qabiilo oo kala ah intrusive (dhulka hoostiisa ku qaboobay) and extrusive (dhulka korkisa soo gaadhay nafla caarigii).  Waxaana lagu kala saaraa surface texture ama sinnaanta dushiisa (Smoothness of rock surfaces). Intrusive has large texture. Tusaale ahaan dhagaxa  Granite rocks wuxuu qaboobaa tartiib sidaas awgeed wuxuu yeesha rough texture ama dusha oo aan sinayn (not smooth). Extrusive wuxuu soo gaadha dhulka korkiisa wuxuuna leeyahay fine texture sida dhagax volcano (dhagax lisin mindiyaha lagu afeeyo) oo kale.


Igneous rocks waxaa laga helaa meelo  badan oo caalamkan kamid  ah gaar ahaa meelaha volcano (lava) ka  jirto.  Dalkeenna waxaa laga  dhinaca galbeedka sida buuraha Djibouti iyo galbeedka fog ee SL.  Waana loo yaqaano intrusive ka waayo volcanaha  dhulkiinu  ma soo  bixin ama malihin laakiin dhulka qabaailka Canfarta  degto ayaa ee dhinaca Ethiopia  ayaa lagaa helaa active Volcanoes.


Dhagaxa igneous rocks waxaa badanaa loo isticmaalaa dhismaha wadooyinka waayo si sahlan uma xoqmo ama la salaaxmo.  Dhismaha dhismayaasha shubka ah.  Wadanka Qatar dhagaxa ugu badan eeloo  isticmaalo dhismaha waa noocan gabbro la dhaho oo laga keeno  Fujayra  (UAE). Ogow lisinkii aynu mindiyaha ku soofayn jiray wuxuu ahaa igneous rocks.

 

Waxa ugu mihiimsan sida loofahmo dhagaxan ama lagu hayb sooco;


  1. Waxaa lagu kala saaraa texture (surface smoothness) ama composition (wuxuu ka kooban yahay)
  2. Kuma jiro lafo ama  hadhaaga xayawaanka waayo dhulka hoostiisa uu dhagaxani ka yimi xayaan kuma noolaan  karaan kulayl dartees.
  3. Acidka  lama   falgasho (Rarely reacts with acid)
  4. Malaha layers ama  lakabo is dul saaran  oo  kala mida ah (has no layers stacked like pancakes)  sida  marka Laxooxda la isdul saar saaro  oo kale.
  5. Waxaa ku qasan dhowr nooc oo  macaadino kala duwan
  6. Midabkisu waa madow ama midab dameeraad (light grey)
  7. Macaadinta   ku jirta waa  widh widhaa markay  qorax  ama laydh qabto
  8. Marar qaarkood waxaa lagu arkaa dilaacyo (fissures)
  9. Waa  fine grained (extrusive) ama coarse grained (intrusive)


Shaxdan hoose waxay ku tusaysaa qaar ka mid ah dhagaxan ugu muhiimsan Igneous rocks;

Nooca  Igneous rocks

Magaca Sawir Midab Qabiilkiisa ama sidu u samayso ama texture
Granite /dhagax lisin * Pink/Gray(midab dameer) Intrusive  (rough surfaces)
Gabbro * Dark Gray to Black Intrusive
Rhyolite * Light Pink or Gray Extrusive
Basalt * Dark Gray to Black Extrusive
Obsidian * Usually Dark Colored Extrusive
Scoria * Dark Colored Extrusive

 

  1. Sedimentary  Rocks

Dhagaxa labaad  waa nooca ugu muhiimsan lagana samaeeyo sibidhka.

Wuxuuna ku samaysmaa dhulka korkiisa malaayiin sannadood. Dabaylaha,  barafka iyo biyaha ayaa xoqa dhulka korkiisa oo dhaqaajiya dhaxaanta ciida, hadhaaga xayawaanka oo isugu geeya meelaha godan sida dooxooyinka,  webiyada, buuraha meelaha  dooxyadda ah iwm.


Waxaa loo yaqaan erosion and sedimentation processes. Intay socdaan waxay isu dulfulaan lakabyo kala duwan, marar qaarna waxaa samaysto hal lakab (layer) midab keliya ama  nooc  keliya ah sidaad ku aragto markaad qoto god dheer in uu yahay lakabo kala mida ah. Ama  sidaad ku aragtid buuraha Sheikh ee dadku sibidh Ilaahiya u haytsaan.

Waxaa kaloo dhacda in loo kala saaro lakabyo kaladuwan sida lakab ciid ah,  mid dhoobo ah mid siltz ah iwm. Xusuuso meelaha biyuhu fadhiistaan  ee baliyada ama dooxooyinka, markay qalalaan waxaad ku arkaysaa dhoobo lakabo ah  oo qalashay oo dil-dilaacda oo aad saxanno moodid kuwaas oo aad jilicsan oo  markaad qaato markiiba kala daadata. Taasi waa layer dhoobo ah oo samaysmayey (MUDSTONE). Marka mid kale dulfuulo ee aad  la isugu cadaadiyo sannado badan waxaa samaysmayo dhagaxa loo yaqaan {Dhagax dhoobeed}  (Mudstone).


Dhaxani wuxuu u kala  baxaa dhawr qabiilo waxaanna laga helaa koone kasta oo dalkeena ka mid ah.

Waxaanna lagu gartaa astaamahan soo socda;


  • Waxaa lagu saraaraa texture and composition
  • Waxaa  ka buuxa fossils ama hadhaaga xayaanka iyo dhirta
  • Wuxuu   la falgalaa acidka markiiba
  • Wuxuu u samaysmaa lakabyo kala sareeya oo ah siman (flat) ama qalooca(curved layers)
  • Waxaa  isku haya macaadinta biyaha ku milantay (cemented layers by desolved minerals in water)
  • Midabo farabdan baa laga helaa dhagxaantan
  • Xabuubka uu ka samaysan yahay way kala duwan yihiin(Particle size may be the same or vary) iyadoo  ku  xidhan process-ka  samayntiisa.
  • Usually has pores between pieces
  • May have cross-bedding, mud cracks, worm burrows, raindrop impressions


Sedimentary rocks wuxuu ka kooban yahay:


  1. Dhagax nuuradeed (Lime stone- remember kan)
  2. Dhagax ciideed(sand stone- remember kan)
  3. Dhagax dhoobeed(mudstone- remember kan)
  4. Conglomerate( isku qas kuwa sare)


Midkastana waxaa hoos yimaada dhagax walba sub clan ah. Dhamaantoodna way ka buuxan   SL

Tusaale ahaan mudstone (dhagax dhoobeed)  ka  waxaa hoose yimaada;


  • Slate
  • Schist
  • Shale

Etc.

 

Shaxda dhagaanta ugu muhiimsan waa sidan:


Sadimentary Rocks

Magaca Sawir Midab Qabiilkiisa ama sidu u samayso ama texture
Sandstone * Red or Gray Sand grains cemented together
Limestone * White to Gray Calcite and sometimes fossils
Shale * Dark Gray Compacted mud
Conglomerate * Different Colors Rounded cobbles and pebbles cemented together

 

  1. Dhagax nuuradeed (Lime stone):   Waa dhagaxa ugu  badan eelaga sameeyo nuuradda dhismayaasha loo isticmaalo. Waana haddii aad garanaysid mid jilicsan oo  taxaa  biyaha  ku milma  dhalinyarda reer miyiguna intay biyaha ku radisayaan    bay timaha ku cadaystaan.  Sidoo kale haddii la rabo  in  nuuraad laga dhigo  waa la gubaa  ka dibna biyaha lagu radiyaa si looga sameeyo stucko guryahay lagu salaaxo. Asal  ahaan dhagaxani waa calcite iyo lafo xayaan oo isku dhegay.


Dhagaxan waad  ku aragtaa meelo badan oo dalkeenna kamid ah wuxuuna ku  badan gobollada SL  ee didibku ku   badan  yahay.


  1. Sandstone ama gagax ciideedku wuxuu  samaysan yahay ciid. Waa dhagax jilicsan oo gacanta waa lagu qori karaa qaabkii la rabo waa dhagax aan sidaas u adkayn waxaana laga helaa buureheenna oo dhan tusaalena waxaakuugu filan dhagax cas-cas ee guryaha lagu qurxiyo magaalooyinka  waa weyn sida Hargeisa iyo Burco.


  1. Mudstone waa dhagax dhoobeed waxaanna laga helaa dalkeenna gaaraha buurha gacan libaax, dhulkan saraar loo yaqaan,  waxaa kale oo laga Togdheer, Odweyna  iyo dhulalka galbeedka ee  beeraha laga qoto intaan  ogahay.


Dhagaxan waxaa ka sii hoos baxa ama ka sii farcama kuwa loo  yaqaan shale, stale,  schist iwm.

Waxaa   jiray inan(wiil) ii soo qoray e-mail iguna sheegay in schist yahay Igneous rock.  Taasi sax maaha dhagaxa schist waa bah habar sedementary oo ka sii   yahay Mudstone waxaynu isku DNA yihiin  Slate(metamorphic),  shale iwm.


Waxaan idin xasuusinayaa   in lakabyadda kala sareera ee aad ku aragtaan buuraha Sheekh  ay yihiin lakabyo  sedimantary ah oo lakab waliba la dhigan waqti mucayin ah. Tusaale ahaan waxa arkaysaa  lakab ciid ah oo sandstone noqon doonna,  mid dhoobo ah oo mudstone noqon doonna, iwm.   Dhagaxa Limestone wuxuu  badana ku  samaysmaa  meelaha ah  dooxooyinka,  lagaha ama biyo mareenada ama ahaan jiray berrigii  hore.   Waxaadna  ogaataa in cimriga dhagaxa  marka laga  hadlayo laga  hadlayo millions of years.Tusaale ahaan   in dhagax samaysmaa oo   ciid ka yimaado oo uu dhagax ciideede  noqdo     waxay  qaataa 1-4million    sannadood.    Sidaas awgeed ha u malayn in dhagax  samaysma  aad arki karto mudo gaaban oo  nolosha qof u dhigan (60 years or so).   Fekerka   odhanaya dhagaxa buuraha  Golis sidooday ku yihiin sibidh waa feker aan sax ahayn kumana dhisnayn wax aqoon ah  ama cilmitoona.

 

C) Metamorphic   Rocks.

Dhagaxa sadexaad ee dunida jiraa waa metamorphic (change +form).  Dhagaxani   wuxuu kayimaadaa marka dhagax horey u jiray aasmo ama lakabyo kale oo deposits ahi  dul fulaan sannado  badan oo caddaadiska iyo  kulaylka dhulka hoostiisa ayaa ka bedela dhagaxa  asalkiisii hore oo hadduu ahaa igneous rock wuxuu  maraa process kulayl  iyo dhalaalin kumanaan sanno ka bacdi  wuu is bedelaa.

Tusaale ahaan  marka la  aaso dhagax loo yaqaan  Dhagax ciideed (sandstone) oo ah sedimanory rock markuu gubto sanado badan wuxuu isu bedelaa quartz,Lime stone ama  dhagax nuuraadeed oo isaguna sedimantory rock ah wuxuu isu bedelaa Marble. Sidoo kale dhagaxa shale (Mudstone ah) wuxuu isu bedelaa  slate.


Dhagaxan sidii kuwii hore wuxuu leeyahay astaamo lagu hayb sooco ama lagu sargooyo  oo ah;


  • Hadhaaga noolaha oo ku yar (5%)
  • Acid (aysiidha)  oo uu lafalgalo
  • Nooca kala duwan oo macdanna oo  ku qasan
  • Wuxuu  leeyahay lakabyo wirwirqa ama dhallaala
  • Wax daloola ama jeex jeexyo laguma arko badanaa.

 

Shaxda dhagaanta ugu muhiimsan waa sidan


Metamorphic Rocks

Magaca Sawir Midab Qabiilkiisa ama sidu u samayso ama texture
Gneiss * Mid dameerood Lakabyo leh
Marble * Midab fudud oo cadaan u dhow Malaha lakabyo
Quartzite *

Midab fudud oo cadaan u dhow,casuusna leh

Malaha lakabyo
Slate * Midab mareereed ama madow Lakabyo ka samaysan


Waxaa  fiira   ah mudan in dhagxaantu ay leeyihiin nolol wareegta ama life cycle sida xayaanka oo kale (rock life cycle) taas oo qaadata   malaayin sannadood.Tusaale;

Xaraarada dhulka hoose ayaa ka dhigta ama  dhaalisa macdanta iyo dhagxaanta (mantle) hoose kuwaas baa caddaadis iyo kulayl dartiisa dhulka korkiisa usoo baxa (Magma) sida Volcanaha  (lava)oo kale dabadeedna qabooba oo  noqda igneous rocks.   Igneous rocks ayaa buuraha (volcano)ka soo dhaca oo wadiya (valleys) fadhiisa waxaa riixa biyaha iyo dabaylaha iskunna garaaca oo waxaa samaysma  jajab yar yar kuwaas waxaa isku dhejiya macdan dhulka laga helo sameeyana lakabyo isuna bedela sedimentory rocks  kuwaas baa lakabyadu sii kordhaana dhagaxii baa aasma kulayl  baa sii kordha culayska lakabyada darteed waxay u bedelaan Metamorphic rocks malaayiin sanadeed kulaylkaa sii kordha wuu dhallaalaa wuxuu noqdaa volcano.  Sidaas bayna ku socotaa nolosha dhagxaantu taasoo qaadata  dariiqdani malaayiin sannadood ah.

Tusaale haddii  aynu maanta dixda Hargeisa/Burco tagno waxaynu ku arkaynaa dhagax dixeedyo  wada malaasan oo wareegsan oo  aan habayaraatee koone fiiqan lahayn.Waxaad fahmaysaa  in biyuhu markay dixdu socoto ay dhagxaantan  meelo fog ka soo qadeen   isku garaaceen dabadeedna koonayaashii ka jebiya isaga dhanna ay ka dhigaan dhax wadan malaasan, waana ay reer Burco dhahaan  (Tuuryo wacane).

Biyaha, dabaylaha  iyo  barafku waa waxa qaabka dhulka iyo dhagaxaantaba kaantaroola  oo  sameeya.  Waa awood Rabbaani ah oo cibrad lagu qaadan  karo.

Intaas yar ee dulka xaadiska ah ku dhaafta dhagxaante dhulkeenna.

 

Waxaa kaloo fiicannaan lahayd  innaynu  ciida maqaal  gaaban kaqoro laakiin waxaan ku dhaafataa sualahan soo socda.


Ha ka soo jawaabto suaalahan cidii taqaan!!!


  1. Sababta ciida HAWDKEENU U cas tahay ama  dharka inooga casaysaa  markaynu  miyiga tagno????????????. Ma  aragtay maryaha reer miyigeenna oo aad moodid in la aslay,  waa maxay sababtu?.  Yaa sibaaqay Ciida dalkeenna. Dhulal inala mid ahi majiraan dunida?
  2. Maxaa  ciidaha, Guban iyo keebuhu kaga duwan   yihiin ta hawdkeena?   Waa macdanaha ku jira ciideena cas? Ma la soo bixi karaa??? Maxayse faaido ledahay?
  3. Maxaa sababay in  dhirta qaarka  baxaan dhulka hawd oo qudha ee ay ugu dhintaan Guban iyo Buurlayda?


  1. Waa Maxay sababta  bilaha Juun, July & august ay dabayluhu uga dhacaan SL.  Maxayse Burco ay uga dabaylo badan tahay Sheekh oo kale.
  2. Maxaa sababa dabaylaha waa weyn ee wareega ee lagu arko dhulkeena?   Ma dhabaa Jibaa wada? Waayo dhabayluhu (Twisted) uga dhici waayeen buuralayda ee uga dhacaan dhulka banaan?Waayo ay dabalayuhu  u  bedelaan jihada ay u socdaan?
  3. Waayo roobku uu marwalba  inoogaga  yimaadaa waqooyi?


IYO  ONE DOLLAR QUESTION?


  1. MACDANO NOOCE  AH BAA LAGA HELAA  SOMALILAND?

Jawaabaha aan u dhaafo  reer SL.

 

Maqaalka  dambe waxaan kaga hadli doonnaa sida loo sameeyo sibidhka, min bidaaya ilaa nihaaya iyo  dhagaxa saxa ah ee laga sameeyo.

Waxaan soo raacin doonnaa sawiro talaabo-  talaabo  ah oo  ku tusaya warshadii oo shaqaynaysa  iyo qaybeheeda.

From quary to clinker.  From clinker to cement production.

Waxaynu kaloo  eegi doonnaa shaqooyinka  laga helo iyo Infrustructure-laga dhiso iyo weliba sida looga dhiso!!!!!!!!!!

Salaama   alaykum


Eng. Maxmud Maxamed Nur Qoorubaxay

Consultant Civil Engineer  with Qatar Petroleum

Doha,  Qatar

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